Definition

Latex is like a derivation of TeX which was created by D.E. Knuth and LaTeX by L.B. Lamport and is better for long articles than TeX.

From Wikipedia

LaTeX is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. Within the typesetting system.

Introduction

A LaTeX document is a plain text document which contains tags like an HTML document which gives the document its format.

This tags should be defined in another file called class. Class are files where the control sequences are defined.

Control Sequences

Control sequences are the commands in LaTeX language, they start with the back slash \, and tell TeX how to format the text in the document.

Special Characters

\ {} $ ^ _ % ~ # &, has special meaning in the document and helps formating and creating a well look document.

\
Usually start control sequences, they are followed by "commands" so to say.
{}
Delimit the characters where the control sequences are going to act
$
Is used to start and finish mathematical formulas
^
Produces superscripts, used widely in mathematical formulas
_
Produces subscripts, also used specially for mathematical formulas
%
Is used to introduce comments in the document, nothing at the right of this symbol is read when processing the .tex file
&
Is used in tables
#
Is used to specify arguments for the control sequences

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