LS(1) User Commands LS(1)

NAME ls - list directory contents


DESCRIPTION List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort.

   Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options

   -a, --all
          do not ignore entries starting with .

   -A, --almost-all
          do not list implied . and ..

          with -l, print the author of each file

   -b, --escape
          print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

          use SIZE-byte blocks

   -B, --ignore-backups
          do not list implied entries ending with ~

   -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
          file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
          otherwise: sort by ctime

   -C     list entries by columns

          control  whether  color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
          may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’

   -d, --directory
          list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer?
          ence symbolic links

   -D, --dired
          generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

   -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

   -F, --classify
          append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

          likewise, except do not append ‘*’

          across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
          verbose -l, vertical -C

          like -l --time-style=full-iso

   -g     like -l, but do not list owner

   -G, --no-group
          like -l, but do not list group

   -h, --human-readable
          with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

   --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

   -H, --dereference-command-line
          follow symbolic links listed on the command line

          follow  each  command line symbolic link that points to a direc?

          do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
          by -a or -A)

   --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
          none  (default),  slash  (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify

   -i, --inode
          with -l, print the index number of each file

   -I, --ignore=PATTERN
          do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

   -k     like --block-size=1K

   -l     use a long listing format

   -L, --dereference
          when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa?
          tion  for  the file the link references rather than for the link

   -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

   -n, --numeric-uid-gid
          like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

   -N, --literal
          print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters  spe?

   -o     like -l, but do not list group information

   -p, --indicator-style=slash
          append / indicator to directories

   -q, --hide-control-chars
          print ? instead of non graphic characters

          show  non  graphic  characters  as-is (default unless program is
          ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

   -Q, --quote-name
          enclose entry names in double quotes

          use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
          shell-always, c, escape

   -r, --reverse
          reverse order while sorting

   -R, --recursive
          list subdirectories recursively

   -s, --size
          with -l, print size of each file, in blocks

   -S     sort by file size

          extension  -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c,
          time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

          with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time:  atime,
          access,  use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if

          with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
          locale,  +FORMAT.   FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’; if FORMAT
          is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent  files
          and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-’,
          STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

   -t     sort by modification time

   -T, --tabsize=COLS
          assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

   -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with  -l:  show  access
          time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

   -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

   -v     sort by version

   -w, --width=COLS
          assume screen width instead of current value

   -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

   -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

   -1     list one file per line

   SELINUX options:

          Display  security  context.    Enable -l. Lines will probably be
          too wide for most displays.

   -Z, --context
          Display security context so it fits on most displays.   Displays
          only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

          Display only security context and file name.

   --help display this help and exit

          output version information and exit

   SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol?
   lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
   P, E, Z, Y.

   By  default,  color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
   equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
   optional  WHEN  argument  is  equivalent to using --color=always.  With
   --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard  output  is  con?
   nected  to  a  terminal  (tty).  The environment variable LS_COLORS can
   influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

   Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

AUTHOR Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS Report bugs to

COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com? mand

          info ls

   should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.97 January 2007 LS(1)