If for some reason you need the physical info from the hard drive connected to your linux machine. hdparm -I /dev/hda[x]

Here is the man page fro hdparm.

HDPARM(8) HDPARM(8)

NAME hdparm - get/set hard disk parameters

SYNOPSIS hdparm [ flags ] [device] ..

DESCRIPTION hdparm provides a command line interface to various hard disk ioctls supported by the stock Linux ATA/IDE device driver subsystem. Some options may work correctly only with the latest kernels. For best results, compile hdparm with the include files from the latest kernel source code.

OPTIONS When no flags are given, -acdgkmnru is assumed.

   -a     Get/set sector count for filesystem read-ahead.  This is used to
          improve performance in  sequential  reads  of  large  files,  by
          prefetching  additional  blocks  in  anticipation  of them being
          needed by the running  task.   In  the  current  kernel  version
          (2.0.10)  this  has  a default setting of 8 sectors (4KB).  This
          value seems good for most purposes, but in a system  where  most
          file  accesses are random seeks, a smaller setting might provide
          better performance.  Also, many IDE drives also have a  separate
          built-in  read-ahead  function,  which alleviates the need for a
          filesystem read-ahead in many situations.

   -A     Disable/enable the IDE drive´s read-lookahead  feature  (usually
          ON by default).  Usage: -A0 (disable) or -A1 (enable).

   -b     Get/set bus state.

   -B     Set Advanced Power Management feature, if the drive supports it.
          A low value means aggressive power management and a  high  value
          means better performance. A value of 255 will disable apm on the
          drive.

   -c     Query/enable (E)IDE 32-bit I/O support.  A numeric parameter can
          be  used  to  enable/disable  32-bit I/O support: Currently sup?
          ported values include 0 to disable  32-bit  I/O  support,  1  to
          enable 32-bit data transfers, and 3 to enable 32-bit data trans?
          fers with a special sync sequence  required  by  many  chipsets.
          The  value  3  works  with  nearly  all 32-bit IDE chipsets, but
          incurs slightly more overhead.  Note  that  "32-bit"  refers  to
          data  transfers  across  a  PCI or VLB bus to the interface card
          only; all (E)IDE drives still have only a 16-bit connection over
          the ribbon cable from the interface card.

   -C     Check  the  current  IDE power mode status, which will always be
          one  of  unknown  (drive  does  not   support   this   command),
          active/idle  (normal  operation), standby (low power mode, drive
          has spun down), or sleeping (lowest power mode,  drive  is  com?
          pletely shut down).  The -S, -y, -Y, and -Z flags can be used to
          manipulate the IDE power modes.

   -d     Disable/enable the "using_dma" flag for this drive.  This option
          now  works  with  most combinations of drives and PCI interfaces
          which support DMA and which are known to the kernel IDE  driver.
          It  is also a good idea to use the appropriate -X option in com?
          bination with -d1 to ensure that the drive itself is  programmed
          for the correct DMA mode, although most BIOSs should do this for
          you at boot time.   Using  DMA  nearly  always  gives  the  best
          performance,  with  fast  I/O throughput and low CPU usage.  But
          there are at least a few configurations of chipsets  and  drives
          for  which  DMA  does not make much of a difference, or may even
          slow things down (on really messed up hardware!).  Your  mileage
          may vary.

   -D     Enable/disable  the  on-drive defect management feature, whereby
          the drive firmware tries to automatically manage defective  sec?
          tors  by relocating them to "spare" sectors reserved by the fac?
          tory for such.

   -E     Set cdrom speed.  This is NOT necessary for  regular  operation,
          as  the  drive will automatically switch speeds on its own.  But
          if you want to play with it, just supply a  speed  number  after
          the option, usually a number like 2 or 4.

   -f     Sync  and  flush  the buffer cache for the device on exit.  This
          operation is also performed as part of the -t and -T timings.

   -g     Display the drive geometry (cylinders, heads, sectors), the size
          (in sectors) of the device, and the starting offset (in sectors)
          of the device from the beginning of the drive.

   -h     Display terse usage information (help).

   -i     Display the identification info that was obtained from the drive
          at  boot  time,  if  available.  This is a feature of modern IDE
          drives, and may not be supported by  older  devices.   The  data
          returned  may or may not be current, depending on activity since
          booting the system.  However, the current multiple  sector  mode
          count  is  always  shown.  For a more detailed interpretation of
          the identification info, refer to AT  Attachment  Interface  for
          Disk  Drives  (ANSI ASC X3T9.2 working draft, revision 4a, April
          19/93).

   -I     Request identification info directly from the  drive,  which  is
          displayed in a new expanded format with considerably more detail
          than with the older -i flag.

   -Istdin
          This is a special "no seatbelts" variation  on  the  -I  option,
          which  accepts  a  drive  identification block as standard input
          instead of using a /dev/hd* parameter.  The format of this block
          must    be   exactly   the   same   as   that   found   in   the
          /proc/ide/*/hd*/identify "files", or that produced by the -Istd???
          out  option described below.  This variation is designed for use
          with collected "libraries" of drive identification  information,
          and can also be used on ATAPI drives which may give media errors
          with the standard mechanism.

   -Istdout
          This option simply dumps the identify data in hex to stdout,  in
          a format similar to that from /proc/, and suitable for later use
          with the -Istdin option.

   -k     Get/set the keep_settings_over_reset flag for the  drive.   When
          this flag is set, the driver will preserve the -dmu options over
          a soft reset, (as done  during  the  error  recovery  sequence).
          This  flag  defaults  to off, to prevent drive reset loops which
          could be caused by combinations of -dmu settings.  The  -k  flag
          should  therefore  only be set after one has achieved confidence
          in correct system operation with a chosen set  of  configuration
          settings.   In practice, all that is typically necessary to test
          a configuration (prior to using -k) is to verify that the  drive
          can  be  read/written,  and that no error logs (kernel messages)
          are generated in the process (look in /var/adm/messages on  most
          systems).

   -K     Set  the  drive´s  keep_features_over_reset  flag.  Setting this
          enables the drive to retain the settings for -APSWXZ over a soft
          reset  (as  done  during  the error recovery sequence).  Not all
          drives support this feature.

   -L     Set the drive´s doorlock flag.  Setting this to 1 will lock  the
          door  mechanism of some removable hard drives (eg. Syquest, ZIP,
          Jazz..), and setting it to 0 will  unlock  the  door  mechanism.
          Normally,  Linux  maintains the door locking mechanism automati?
          cally, depending on drive usage (locked whenever a filesystem is
          mounted).  But on system shutdown, this can be a nuisance if the
          root partition is on a removeable disk, since the root partition
          is  left  mounted (read-only) after shutdown.  So, by using this
          command  to  unlock  the  door  after  the  root  filesystem  is
          remounted  read-only, one can then remove the cartridge from the
          drive after shutdown.

   -m     Get/set sector count for multiple sector I/O on  the  drive.   A
          setting  of  0 disables this feature.  Multiple sector mode (aka
          IDE Block Mode), is a feature of most modern  IDE  hard  drives,
          permitting  the  transfer of multiple sectors per I/O interrupt,
          rather than the usual one sector per interrupt.  When this  fea?
          ture  is enabled, it typically reduces operating system overhead
          for disk I/O by 30-50%.   On  many  systems,  it  also  provides
          increased  data  throughput  of  anywhere  from 5% to 50%.  Some
          drives, however (most notably the WD Caviar series), seem to run
          slower with multiple mode enabled.  Your mileage may vary.  Most
          drives support the minimum settings of 2, 4, 8, or 16 (sectors).
          Larger settings may also be possible, depending on the drive.  A
          setting of 16 or 32 seems optimal on many systems.  Western Dig?
          ital  recommends  lower  settings  of  4  to  8 on many of their
          drives, due tiny (32kB) drive buffers and non-optimized  buffer?
          ing  algorithms.   The  -i  flag can be used to find the maximum
          setting supported by an installed drive (look for MaxMultSect in
          the  output).   Some  drives claim to support multiple mode, but
          lose data at some  settings.   Under  rare  circumstances,  such
          failures can result in massive filesystem corruption.

   -M     Get/set Automatic Acoustic Management (AAM) setting. Most modern
          harddisk drives have the ability to speed down  the  head  move?
          ments  to  reduce  their  noise output.  The possible values are
          between 0 and 254. 128 is the most quiet (and therefore slowest)
          setting and 254 the fastest (and loudest). Some drives have only
          two levels (quiet / fast), while others may have different  lev?
          els  between  128 and 254.  At the moment, most drives only sup?
          port 3 options, off, quiet, and fast.  These have been  assigned
          the values 0, 128, and 254 at present, respectively, but integer
          space has been incorporated for future  expansion,  should  this
          change.

   -n     Get or set the "ignore write errors" flag in the driver.  Do NOT
          play with this without grokking the driver source code first.

   -p     Attempt to reprogram the IDE interface chipset for the specified
          PIO  mode,  or attempt to auto-tune for the "best" PIO mode sup?
          ported by the drive.  This feature is supported  in  the  kernel
          for  only  a  few "known" chipsets, and even then the support is
          iffy at best.  Some IDE chipsets are unable  to  alter  the  PIO
          mode  for  a single drive, in which case this flag may cause the
          PIO mode for both drives to be set.  Many IDE  chipsets  support
          either  fewer  or more than the standard six (0 to 5) PIO modes,
          so the exact speed setting that  is  actually  implemented  will
          vary  by  chipset/driver  sophistication.  Use with extreme cau?
          tion!  This feature includes zero protection for the unwary, and
          an  unsuccessful outcome may result in severe filesystem corrup?
          tion!

   -P     Set the maximum sector count for the drive´s  internal  prefetch
          mechanism.  Not all drives support this feature.

   -q     Handle  the  next flag quietly, suppressing normal output.  This
          is useful for reducing screen clutter when running  from  system
          startup  scripts.   Not  applicable  to the -i or -v or -t or -T
          flags.

   -Q     Set tagged queue depth (1 or greater), or  turn  tagged  queuing
          off  (0).  This only works with the newer 2.5.xx (or later) ker?
          nels, and only with the few drives that currently support it.

   -r     Get/set read-only flag for the device.  When set,  Linux  disal?
          lows write operations on the device.

   -R     Register  an  IDE  interface.  Dangerous.  See the -U option for
          more information.

   -S     Set the standby (spindown) timeout for the drive.  This value is
          used  by  the  drive to determine how long to wait (with no disk
          activity) before turning off the spindle motor  to  save  power.
          Under  such circumstances, the drive may take as long as 30 sec?
          onds to respond to a subsequent disk access, though most  drives
          are much quicker.  The encoding of the timeout value is somewhat
          peculiar.  A value of zero means "timeouts  are  disabled":  the
          device will not automatically enter standby mode.  Values from 1
          to 240 specify multiples of 5 seconds, yielding timeouts from  5
          seconds to 20 minutes.  Values from 241 to 251 specify from 1 to
          11 units of 30 minutes, yielding timeouts from 30 minutes to 5.5
          hours.   A  value  of  252  signifies a timeout of 21 minutes. A
          value of 253 sets a vendor-defined timeout period between 8  and
          12  hours, and the value 254 is reserved.  255 is interpreted as
          21 minutes plus 15 seconds.  Note that  some  older  drives  may
          have very different interpretations of these values.

   -T     Perform timings of cache reads for benchmark and comparison pur?
          poses.   For  meaningful  results,  this  operation  should   be
          repeated  2-3  times  on  an otherwise inactive system (no other
          active processes) with at least a couple of  megabytes  of  free
          memory.   This  displays  the speed of reading directly from the
          Linux buffer cache without disk  access.   This  measurement  is
          essentially  an  indication  of the throughput of the processor,
          cache, and memory of the system under test.  If the -t  flag  is
          also specified, then a correction factor based on the outcome of
          -T will be incorporated into the  result  reported  for  the  -t
          operation.

   -t     Perform  timings  of  device  reads for benchmark and comparison
          purposes.  For meaningful  results,  this  operation  should  be
          repeated  2-3  times  on  an otherwise inactive system (no other
          active processes) with at least a couple of  megabytes  of  free
          memory.   This  displays the speed of reading through the buffer
          cache to the disk without any prior caching of data.  This  mea?
          surement  is  an  indication  of  how fast the drive can sustain
          sequential data reads under Linux, without any filesystem  over?
          head.   To  ensure  accurate  measurements,  the buffer cache is
          flushed during the processing of -t using the  BLKFLSBUF  ioctl.
          If the -T flag is also specified, then a correction factor based
          on the outcome of  -T  will  be  incorporated  into  the  result
          reported for the -t operation.

   -u     Get/set  interrupt-unmask  flag  for  the drive.  A setting of 1
          permits the driver to unmask other interrupts during  processing
          of  a disk interrupt, which greatly improves Linux´s responsive?
          ness and eliminates "serial port overrun" errors.  Use this fea???
          ture  with  caution:  some  drive/controller combinations do not
          tolerate the increased I/O latencies possible when this  feature
          is enabled, resulting in massive filesystem corruption.  In par?
          ticular, CMD-640B and RZ1000 (E)IDE interfaces can be unreliable
          (due  to  a  hardware flaw) when this option is used with kernel
          versions earlier than 2.0.13.  Disabling the IDE  prefetch  fea?
          ture  of these interfaces (usually a BIOS/CMOS setting) provides
          a safe fix for the problem for use with earlier kernels.

   -U     Un-register an IDE interface.  Dangerous.  The companion for the
          -R option.  Intended for use with hardware made specifically for
          hot-swapping (very rare!).  Use with knowledge and extreme  cau???
          tion  as this can easily hang or damage your system.  The hdparm
          source distribution includes a  ´contrib´  directory  with  some
          user-donated  scripts  for  hot-swapping  on  the  UltraBay of a
          ThinkPad 600E.  Use at your own risk.

   -v     Display all settings, except -i (same as -acdgkmnru for IDE, -gr
          for  SCSI  or -adgr for XT).  This is also the default behaviour
          when no flags are specified.

   -w     Perform a device reset (DANGEROUS).  Do NOT use this option.  It
          exists for unlikely situations where a reboot might otherwise be
          required to get a confused drive back into a useable state.

   -W     Disable/enable the IDE drive´s  write-caching  feature  (default
          state is undeterminable; manufacturer/model specific).

   -x     Tristate device for hotswap (DANGEROUS).

   -X     Set  the IDE transfer mode for newer (E)IDE/ATA drives.  This is
          typically used in combination with -d1 when enabling DMA to/from
          a drive on a supported interface chipset, where -X mdma2 is used
          to select multiword DMA mode2 transfers and -X sdma1 is used  to
          select  simple mode 1 DMA transfers.  With systems which support
          UltraDMA burst timings, -X udma2  is  used  to  select  UltraDMA
          mode2 transfers (you´ll need to prepare the chipset for UltraDMA
          beforehand).  Apart from that, use of this flag is seldom neces?
          sary  since  most/all modern IDE drives default to their fastest
          PIO transfer mode at power-on.  Fiddling with this can  be  both
          needless  and risky.  On drives which support alternate transfer
          modes, -X can be used to switch the  mode  of  the  drive  only.
          Prior to changing the transfer mode, the IDE interface should be
          jumpered or programmed (see -p flag) for the new mode setting to
          prevent  loss  and/or corruption of data.  Use this with extreme
          caution!  For the PIO (Programmed Input/Output)  transfer  modes
          used  by Linux, this value is simply the desired PIO mode number
          plus 8.  Thus, a value of 09 sets  PIO  mode1,  10  enables  PIO
          mode2,  and  11  selects  PIO  mode3.   Setting  00 restores the
          drive´s "default" PIO mode, and 01 disables IORDY.   For  multi?
          word DMA, the value used is the desired DMA mode number plus 32.
          for UltraDMA, the value is the desired UltraDMA mode number plus
          64.

   -y     Force  an  IDE drive to immediately enter the low power consump?
          tion standby mode, usually causing it to spin down.  The current
          power mode status can be checked using the -C flag.

   -Y     Force  an  IDE  drive to immediately enter the lowest power con?
          sumption sleep mode, causing it to shut down completely.  A hard
          or soft reset is required before the drive can be accessed again
          (the Linux IDE driver will automatically handle issuing a  reset
          if/when  needed).   The current power mode status can be checked
          using the -C flag.

   -z     Force a kernel re-read of the partition table of  the  specified
          device(s).

   -Z     Disable  the  automatic power-saving function of certain Seagate
          drives (ST3xxx models?), to prevent them  from  idling/spinning-
          down at inconvenient times.


   ATA Security Feature Set

   These  switches  are  DANGEROUS  to experiment with, and might not work
   with every kernel.  USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --security-help
          Display terse usage info for all of the --security-* flags.

   --security-freeze
          Freeze the drive´s security settings.  The drive does not accept
          any security commands until next power-on reset.  Use this func?
          tion in combination with --security-unlock to protect drive from
          any  attempt to set a new password. Can be used standalone, too.

   --security-unlock PWD
          Unlock the drive, using password PWD.  Password is given  as  an
          ASCII  string  and  is  padded with NULs to reach 32 bytes.  The
          applicable drive password is  selected  with  the  --user-master
          switch.   THIS  FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND NOT WELL TESTED. USE
          AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --security-set-pass PWD
          Lock the drive, using password PWD (Set  Password)  (DANGEROUS).
          Password  is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to
          reach 32 bytes.  The applicable drive password is selected  with
          the  --user-master  switch and the applicable security mode with
          the --security-mode switch.  THIS FEATURE  IS  EXPERIMENTAL  AND
          NOT WELL TESTED. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --security-disable PWD
          Disable drive locking, using password PWD.  Password is given as
          an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to reach 32 bytes.   The
          applicable  drive  password  is  selected with the --user-master
          switch.  THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND NOT WELL  TESTED.  USE
          AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --security-erase PWD
          Erase  (locked) drive, using password PWD (DANGEROUS).  Password
          is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to reach  32
          bytes.   The  applicable  drive  password  is  selected with the
          --user-master switch.  THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND NOT WELL
          TESTED. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --security-erase-enhanced PWD
          Enhanced  erase  (locked) drive, using password PWD (DANGEROUS).
          Password is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs  to
          reach  32 bytes.  The applicable drive password is selected with
          the --user-master switch.  THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND  NOT
          WELL TESTED. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

   --user-master USER
          Specifies  which  password (user/master) to select.  Defaults to
          master.  Only  useful  in  combination  with  --security-unlock,
          --security-set-pass,   --security-disable,  --security-erase  or
          --security-erase-enhanced.
                  u       user password
                  m       master password

          THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND NOT WELL TESTED.  USE  AT  YOUR
          OWN RISK.

   --security-mode MODE
          Specifies  which  security mode (high/maximum) to set.  Defaults
          to high.  Only useful in combination with --security-set-pass.
                  h       high security
                  m       maximum security

          THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL AND NOT WELL TESTED.  USE  AT  YOUR
          OWN RISK.

FILES /etc/hdparm.conf

BUGS As noted above, the -m sectcount and -u 1 options should be used with caution at first, preferably on a read-only filesystem. Most drives work well with these features, but a few drive/controller combinations are not 100% compatible. Filesystem corruption may result. Backup everything before experimenting!

   Some  options (eg. -r for SCSI) may not work with old kernels as neces?
   sary ioctl()´s were not supported.

   Although this utility is intended primarily for use  with  (E)IDE  hard
   disk devices, several of the options are also valid (and permitted) for
   use with SCSI hard disk devices and MFM/RLL hard disks with  XT  inter?
   faces.

   The  Linux  kernel  up until 2.6.12 (and probably later) doesn´t handle
   the security unlock and disable commands gracefully and  will  segfault
   and  in  some  cases  even  panic.  The security commands however might
   indeed have been executed by the  drive.  This  poor  kernel  behaviour
   makes the PIO data security commands rather useless at the moment.

   Note  that  the  "security  erase" and "security disable" commands have
   been implemented as two consecutive PIO data commands and will not suc?
   ceed  on  a  locked drive because the second command will not be issued
   after the segfault.  See the code for hints how patch it to work around
   this  problem.  Despite  the segfault it is often still possible to run
   two instances of hdparm consecutively and issue the two necessary  com?
   mands that way.

AUTHOR hdparm has been written by Mark Lord mlord@pobox.com, the original primary developer and maintainer of the (E)IDE driver for Linux, with suggestions from many netfolk.

   The disable Seagate auto-powersaving code is courtesy of Tomi Leppikan?
   gas(tomilepp@paju.oulu.fi).

   Security freeze command by Benjamin Benz <bbe@heise.de>, 2005.

   PIO data out security commands by Leonard den Ottolander  <leonard  den
   ottolander nl>, 2005.  Parts by Benjamin Benz <bbe@heise.de>.

SEE ALSO AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives, ANSI ASC X3T9.2 working draft, revision 4a, April 19, 1993.

   AT Attachment Interface with Extensions (ATA-2), ANSI ASC X3T9.2  work?
   ing draft, revision 2f, July 26, 1994.

   AT  Attachment  with  Packet  Interface  -  5  (ATA/ATAPI-5), T13-1321D
   working draft, revision 3, February 29, 2000.

   AT Attachment with Packet Interface - 6 (ATA/ATAPI-6), T13-1410D  work?
   ing draft, revision 3b, February 26, 2002.

   Western  Digital  Enhanced IDE Implementation Guide, by Western Digital
   Corporation, revision 5.0, November 10, 1993.

   Enhanced Disk Drive Specification, by Phoenix Technologies  Ltd.,  ver?
   sion 1.0, January 25, 1994.

Version 6.3 October 2005 HDPARM(8)