WGET(1) GNU Wget WGET(1)

NAME Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

SYNOPSIS wget [option]… [URL]…

DESCRIPTION GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as retrieval through HTTP proxies.

   Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
   while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to start a retrieval
   and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the work.  By con?
   trast, most of the Web browsers require constant user’s presence, which
   can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

   Wget can follow links in HTML and XHTML pages and create local versions
   of remote web sites, fully recreating the directory structure of the
   original site.  This is sometimes referred to as ‘‘recursive download?
   ing.’’  While doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion Standard
   (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links in down?
   loaded HTML files to the local files for offline viewing.

   Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
   connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will keep
   retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server sup?
   ports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue the download
   from where it left off.

OPTIONS Option Syntax

   Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command-line arguments, every
   option has a long form along with the short one.  Long options are more
   convenient to remember, but take time to type.  You may freely mix dif?
   ferent option styles, or specify options after the command-line argu?
   ments.  Thus you may write:

           wget -r --tries=10 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ -o log

   The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument may
   be omitted.  Instead -o log you can write -olog.

   You may put several options that do not require arguments together,
   like:

           wget -drc <URL>

   This is a complete equivalent of:

           wget -d -r -c <URL>

   Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may termi?
   nate them with --.  So the following will try to download URL -x,
   reporting failure to log:

           wget -o log -- -x

   The options that accept comma-separated lists all respect the conven?
   tion that specifying an empty list clears its value.  This can be use?
   ful to clear the .wgetrc settings.  For instance, if your .wgetrc sets
   "exclude_directories" to /cgi-bin, the following example will first
   reset it, and then set it to exclude /~nobody and /~somebody.  You can
   also clear the lists in .wgetrc.

           wget -X ’’ -X /~nobody,/~somebody

   Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so named
   because their state can be captured with a yes-or-no (‘‘boolean’’)
   variable.  For example, --follow-ftp tells Wget to follow FTP links
   from HTML files and, on the other hand, --no-glob tells it not to per?
   form file globbing on FTP URLs.  A boolean option is either affirmative
   or negative (beginning with --no).  All such options share several
   properties.

   Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default behavior is the
   opposite of what the option accomplishes.  For example, the documented
   existence of --follow-ftp assumes that the default is to not follow FTP
   links from HTML pages.

   Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the --no- to the
   option name; negative options can be negated by omitting the --no- pre?
   fix.  This might seem superfluous---if the default for an affirmative
   option is to not do something, then why provide a way to explicitly
   turn it off?  But the startup file may in fact change the default.  For
   instance, using "follow_ftp = off" in .wgetrc makes Wget not follow FTP
   links by default, and using --no-follow-ftp is the only way to restore
   the factory default from the command line.

   Basic Startup Options


   -V
   --version
       Display the version of Wget.

   -h
   --help
       Print a help message describing all of Wget’s command-line options.

   -b
   --background
       Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is
       specified via the -o, output is redirected to wget-log.

   -e command
   --execute command
       Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus
       invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc, thus taking
       precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than one wgetrc
       command, use multiple instances of -e.

   Logging and Input File Options


   -o logfile
   --output-file=logfile
       Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported to
       standard error.

   -a logfile
   --append-output=logfile
       Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to log?
       file instead of overwriting the old log file.  If logfile does not
       exist, a new file is created.

   -d
   --debug
       Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the
       developers of Wget if it does not work properly.  Your system
       administrator may have chosen to compile Wget without debug sup?
       port, in which case -d will not work.  Please note that compiling
       with debug support is always safe---Wget compiled with the debug
       support will not print any debug info unless requested with -d.

   -q
   --quiet
       Turn off Wget’s output.

   -v
   --verbose
       Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default
       output is verbose.

   -nv
   --no-verbose
       Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q for that),
       which means that error messages and basic information still get
       printed.

   -i file
   --input-file=file
       Read URLs from file.  If - is specified as file, URLs are read from
       the standard input.  (Use ./- to read from a file literally named
       -.)

       If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command
       line.  If there are URLs both on the command line and in an input
       file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to be
       retrieved.  The file need not be an HTML document (but no harm if
       it is)---it is enough if the URLs are just listed sequentially.

       However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be regarded
       as html.  In that case you may have problems with relative links,
       which you can solve either by adding "<base href="url">" to the
       documents or by specifying --base=url on the command line.

   -F
   --force-html
       When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
       file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing
       HTML files on your local disk, by adding "<base href="url">" to
       HTML, or using the --base command-line option.

   -B URL
   --base=URL
       Prepends URL to relative links read from the file specified with
       the -i option.

   Download Options


   --bind-address=ADDRESS
       When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS on the local
       machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP address.
       This option can be useful if your machine is bound to multiple IPs.

   -t number
   --tries=number
       Set number of retries to number.  Specify 0 or inf for infinite
       retrying.  The default is to retry 20 times, with the exception of
       fatal errors like ‘‘connection refused’’ or ‘‘not found’’ (404),
       which are not retried.

   -O file
   --output-document=file
       The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all
       will be concatenated together and written to file.  If - is used as
       file, documents will be printed to standard output, disabling link
       conversion.  (Use ./- to print to a file literally named -.)

       Note that a combination with -k is only well-defined for download?
       ing a single document.

   -nc
   --no-clobber
       If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
       Wget’s behavior depends on a few options, including -nc.  In cer?
       tain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten, upon
       repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.

       When running Wget without -N, -nc, or -r, downloading the same file
       in the same directory will result in the original copy of file
       being preserved and the second copy being named file.1.  If that
       file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be named file.2,
       and so on.  When -nc is specified, this behavior is suppressed, and
       Wget will refuse to download newer copies of file.  Therefore,
       ‘‘"no-clobber"’’ is actually a misnomer in this mode---it’s not
       clobbering that’s prevented (as the numeric suffixes were already
       preventing clobbering), but rather the multiple version saving
       that’s prevented.

       When running Wget with -r, but without -N or -nc, re-downloading a
       file will result in the new copy simply overwriting the old.
       Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing the original
       version to be preserved and any newer copies on the server to be
       ignored.

       When running Wget with -N, with or without -r, the decision as to
       whether or not to download a newer copy of a file depends on the
       local and remote timestamp and size of the file.  -nc may not be
       specified at the same time as -N.

       Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or
       .htm will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had
       been retrieved from the Web.

   -c
   --continue
       Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when
       you want to finish up a download started by a previous instance of
       Wget, or by another program.  For instance:

               wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

       If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget
       will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
       will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal
       to the length of the local file.

       Note that you don’t need to specify this option if you just want
       the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a file should
       the connection be lost midway through.  This is the default behav?
       ior.  -c only affects resumption of downloads started prior to this
       invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting around.

       Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote
       file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file alone.

       Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a non-empty file, and it
       turns out that the server does not support continued downloading,
       Wget will refuse to start the download from scratch, which would
       effectively ruin existing contents.  If you really want the down?
       load to start from scratch, remove the file.

       Also beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of
       equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to download
       the file and print an explanatory message.  The same happens when
       the file is smaller on the server than locally (presumably because
       it was changed on the server since your last download
       attempt)---because ‘‘continuing’’ is not meaningful, no download
       occurs.

       On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that’s big?
       ger on the server than locally will be considered an incomplete
       download and only "(length(remote) - length(local))" bytes will be
       downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.  This behav?
       ior can be desirable in certain cases---for instance, you can use
       wget -c to download just the new portion that’s been appended to a
       data collection or log file.

       However, if the file is bigger on the server because it’s been
       changed, as opposed to just appended to, you’ll end up with a gar?
       bled file.  Wget has no way of verifying that the local file is
       really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be espe?
       cially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since
       every file will be considered as an "incomplete download" candi?
       date.

       Another instance where you’ll get a garbled file if you try to use
       -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a ‘‘transfer
       interrupted’’ string into the local file.  In the future a ‘‘roll?
       back’’ option may be added to deal with this case.

       Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers that
       support the "Range" header.

   --progress=type
       Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal
       indicators are ‘‘dot’’ and ‘‘bar’’.

       The ‘‘bar’’ indicator is used by default.  It draws an ASCII
       progress bar graphics (a.k.a ‘‘thermometer’’ display) indicating
       the status of retrieval.  If the output is not a TTY, the ‘‘dot’’
       bar will be used by default.

       Use --progress=dot to switch to the ‘‘dot’’ display.  It traces the
       retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot representing a
       fixed amount of downloaded data.

       When using the dotted retrieval, you may also set the style by
       specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign differ?
       ent meaning to one dot.  With the "default" style each dot repre?
       sents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a line.
       The "binary" style has a more ‘‘computer’’-like orientation---8K
       dots, 16-dots clusters and 48 dots per line (which makes for 384K
       lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for downloading very large
       files---each dot represents 64K retrieved, there are eight dots in
       a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so each line contains 3M).

       Note that you can set the default style using the "progress" com?
       mand in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the command
       line.  The exception is that, when the output is not a TTY, the
       ‘‘dot’’ progress will be favored over ‘‘bar’’.  To force the bar
       output, use --progress=bar:force.

   -N
   --timestamping
       Turn on time-stamping.

   -S
   --server-response
       Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP
       servers.

   --spider
       When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider,
       which means that it will not download the pages, just check that
       they are there.  For example, you can use Wget to check your book?
       marks:

               wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

       This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the
       functionality of real web spiders.

   -T seconds
   --timeout=seconds
       Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent to
       specifying --dns-timeout, --connect-timeout, and --read-timeout,
       all at the same time.

       When interacting with the network, Wget can check for timeout and
       abort the operation if it takes too long.  This prevents anomalies
       like hanging reads and infinite connects.  The only timeout enabled
       by default is a 900-second read timeout.  Setting a timeout to 0
       disables it altogether.  Unless you know what you are doing, it is
       best not to change the default timeout settings.

       All timeout-related options accept decimal values, as well as sub?
       second values.  For example, 0.1 seconds is a legal (though unwise)
       choice of timeout.  Subsecond timeouts are useful for checking
       server response times or for testing network latency.

   --dns-timeout=seconds
       Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS lookups that
       don’t complete within the specified time will fail.  By default,
       there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented by
       system libraries.

   --connect-timeout=seconds
       Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that
       take longer to establish will be aborted.  By default, there is no
       connect timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.

   --read-timeout=seconds
       Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  The ‘‘time’’
       of this timeout refers idle time: if, at any point in the download,
       no data is received for more than the specified number of seconds,
       reading fails and the download is restarted.  This option does not
       directly affect the duration of the entire download.

       Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the connection
       sooner than this option requires.  The default read timeout is 900
       seconds.

   --limit-rate=amount
       Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may be
       expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes with
       the m suffix.  For example, --limit-rate=20k will limit the
       retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This is useful when, for whatever rea?
       son, you don’t want Wget to consume the entire available bandwidth.

       This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in conjunc?
       tion with power suffixes; for example, --limit-rate=2.5k is a legal
       value.

       Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate
       amount of time after a network read that took less time than speci?
       fied by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes the TCP transfer
       to slow down to approximately the specified rate.  However, it may
       take some time for this balance to be achieved, so don’t be sur?
       prised if limiting the rate doesn’t work well with very small
       files.

   -w seconds
   --wait=seconds
       Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use
       of this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by
       making the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the time
       can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours using
       "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

       Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network
       or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait long enough
       to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the
       retry.  The waiting interval specified by this function is influ?
       enced by "--random-wait", which see.

   --waitretry=seconds
       If you don’t want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only
       between retries of failed downloads, you can use this option.  Wget
       will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first failure
       on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the second failure on
       that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.  There?
       fore, a value of 10 will actually make Wget wait up to (1 + 2 + ...
       + 10) = 55 seconds per file.

       Note that this option is turned on by default in the global wgetrc
       file.

   --random-wait
       Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval pro?
       grams such as Wget by looking for statistically significant simi?
       larities in the time between requests. This option causes the time
       between requests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 * wait seconds, where
       wait was specified using the --wait option, in order to mask Wget’s
       presence from such analysis.

       A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a popular
       consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis on the
       fly.  Its author suggested blocking at the class C address level to
       ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked despite changing
       DHCP-supplied addresses.

       The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised recommen?
       dation to block many unrelated users from a web site due to the
       actions of one.

   --no-proxy
       Don’t use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy environment
       variable is defined.

       For more information about the use of proxies with Wget,

   -Q quota
   --quota=quota
       Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be
       specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or
       megabytes (with m suffix).

       Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So if
       you specify wget -Q10k ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/ls-lR.gz, all of
       the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The same goes even when several
       URLs are specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
       respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input
       file.  Thus you may safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download will
       be aborted when the quota is exceeded.

       Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.

   --no-dns-cache
       Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget remembers the IP
       addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn’t have to repeatedly
       contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of hosts
       it retrieves from.  This cache exists in memory only; a new Wget
       run will contact DNS again.

       However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not
       desirable to cache host names, even for the duration of a short-
       running application like Wget.  With this option Wget issues a new
       DNS lookup (more precisely, a new call to "gethostbyname" or
       "getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection.  Please note
       that this option will not affect caching that might be performed by
       the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as
       NSCD.

       If you don’t understand exactly what this option does, you probably
       won’t need it.

   --restrict-file-names=mode
       Change which characters found in remote URLs may show up in local
       file names generated from those URLs.  Characters that are
       restricted by this option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH,
       where HH is the hexadecimal number that corresponds to the
       restricted character.

       By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not valid as part
       of file names on your operating system, as well as control charac?
       ters that are typically unprintable.  This option is useful for
       changing these defaults, either because you are downloading to a
       non-native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of
       the control characters.

       When mode is set to ‘‘unix’’, Wget escapes the character / and the
       control characters in the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.  This is the
       default on Unix-like OS’es.

       When mode is set to ‘‘windows’’, Wget escapes the characters \, |,
       /, :, ?, ", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges 0--31
       and 128--159.  In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode uses +
       instead of : to separate host and port in local file names, and
       uses @ instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file name
       from the rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
       www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode would be
       saved as www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows mode.
       This mode is the default on Windows.

       If you append ,nocontrol to the mode, as in unix,nocontrol, escap?
       ing of the control characters is also switched off.  You can use
       --restrict-file-names=nocontrol to turn off escaping of control
       characters without affecting the choice of the OS to use as file
       name restriction mode.

   -4
   --inet4-only
   -6
   --inet6-only
       Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With --inet4-only or
       -4, Wget will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring AAAA records in
       DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.
       Conversely, with --inet6-only or -6, Wget will only connect to IPv6
       hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.

       Neither options should be needed normally.  By default, an
       IPv6-aware Wget will use the address family specified by the host’s
       DNS record.  If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses,
       Wget will try them in sequence until it finds one it can connect
       to.  (Also see "--prefer-family" option described below.)

       These options can be used to deliberately force the use of IPv4 or
       IPv6 address families on dual family systems, usually to aid debug?
       ging or to deal with broken network configuration.  Only one of
       --inet6-only and --inet4-only may be specified at the same time.
       Neither option is available in Wget compiled without IPv6 support.

   --prefer-family=IPv4/IPv6/none
       When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the addresses
       with specified address family first.  IPv4 addresses are preferred
       by default.

       This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when accessing
       hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from IPv4 net?
       works.  For example, www.kame.net resolves to
       2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to 203.178.141.194.  When
       the preferred family is "IPv4", the IPv4 address is used first;
       when the preferred family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is used
       first; if the specified value is "none", the address order returned
       by DNS is used without change.

       Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn’t inhibit access to any address
       family, it only changes the order in which the addresses are
       accessed.  Also note that the reordering performed by this option
       is stable---it doesn’t affect order of addresses of the same fam?
       ily.  That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of all
       IPv6 addresses remains intact in all cases.

   --retry-connrefused
       Consider ‘‘connection refused’’ a transient error and try again.
       Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is unable to connect to the
       site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the server
       is not running at all and that retries would not help.  This option
       is for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to disappear
       for short periods of time.

   --user=user
   --password=password
       Specify the username user and password password for both FTP and
       HTTP file retrieval.  These parameters can be overridden using the
       --ftp-user and --ftp-password options for FTP connections and the
       --http-user and --http-password options for HTTP connections.

   Directory Options


   -nd
   --no-directories
       Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving recur?
       sively.  With this option turned on, all files will get saved to
       the current directory, without clobbering (if a name shows up more
       than once, the filenames will get extensions .n).

   -x
   --force-directories
       The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if
       one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g. wget -x
       http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the downloaded file to
       fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt.

   -nH
   --no-host-directories
       Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default,
       invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a struc?
       ture of directories beginning with fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option
       disables such behavior.

   --protocol-directories
       Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file names.
       For example, with this option, wget -r http://host will save to
       http/host/... rather than just to host/....

   --cut-dirs=number
       Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for getting a
       fine-grained control over the directory where recursive retrieval
       will be saved.

       Take, for example, the directory at
       ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve it with -r, it
       will be saved locally under ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While the
       -nH option can remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still stuck
       with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in handy; it makes
       Wget not ‘‘see’’ number remote directory components.  Here are
       several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.

               No options        -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
               -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
               -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
               -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

               --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/
               ...

       If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this option
       is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.  However, unlike -nd,
       --cut-dirs does not lose with subdirectories---for instance, with
       -nH --cut-dirs=1, a beta/ subdirectory will be placed to
       xemacs/beta, as one would expect.

   -P prefix
   --directory-prefix=prefix
       Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the direc?
       tory where all other files and subdirectories will be saved to,
       i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.  The default is . (the current
       directory).

   HTTP Options


   -E
   --html-extension
       If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is downloaded
       and the URL does not end with the regexp \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this
       option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the local
       filename.  This is useful, for instance, when you’re mirroring a
       remote site that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored pages
       to be viewable on your stock Apache server.  Another good use for
       this is when you’re downloading CGI-generated materials.  A URL
       like http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as arti?
       cle.cgi?25.html.

       Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded every
       time you re-mirror a site, because Wget can’t tell that the local
       X.html file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn’t yet know
       that the URL produces output of type text/html or applica?
       tion/xhtml+xml.  To prevent this re-downloading, you must use -k
       and -K so that the original version of the file will be saved as
       X.orig.

   --http-user=user
   --http-password=password
       Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP server.
       According to the type of the challenge, Wget will encode them using
       either the "basic" (insecure) or the "digest" authentication
       scheme.

       Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.
       Either method reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run
       "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in
       .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
       users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not
       leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
       them after Wget has started the download.

   --no-cache
       Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget will send the remote
       server an appropriate directive (Pragma: no-cache) to get the file
       from the remote service, rather than returning the cached version.
       This is especially useful for retrieving and flushing out-of-date
       documents on proxy servers.

       Caching is allowed by default.

   --no-cookies
       Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for maintain?
       ing server-side state.  The server sends the client a cookie using
       the "Set-Cookie" header, and the client responds with the same
       cookie upon further requests.  Since cookies allow the server own?
       ers to keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange this infor?
       mation, some consider them a breach of privacy.  The default is to
       use cookies; however, storing cookies is not on by default.

   --load-cookies file
       Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is a
       textual file in the format originally used by Netscape’s cook?
       ies.txt file.

       You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that
       require that you be logged in to access some or all of their con?
       tent.  The login process typically works by the web server issuing
       an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying your credentials.  The
       cookie is then resent by the browser when accessing that part of
       the site, and so proves your identity.

       Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your
       browser sends when communicating with the site.  This is achieved
       by --load-cookies---simply point Wget to the location of the cook?
       ies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your browser would
       send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual cookie
       files in different locations:

       Netscape 4.x.
           The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

       Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.
           Mozilla’s cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located some?
           where under ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your profile.  The
           full path usually ends up looking somewhat like
           ~/.mozilla/default/some-weird-string/cookies.txt.

       Internet Explorer.
           You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File
           menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has been tested
           with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work with
           earlier versions.

       Other browsers.
           If you are using a different browser to create your cookies,
           --load-cookies will only work if you can locate or produce a
           cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.

       If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an alterna?
       tive.  If your browser supports a ‘‘cookie manager’’, you can use
       it to view the cookies used when accessing the site you’re mirror?
       ing.  Write down the name and value of the cookie, and manually
       instruct Wget to send those cookies, bypassing the ‘‘official’’
       cookie support:

               wget --no-cookies --header "Cookie: <name>=<value>"

   --save-cookies file
       Save cookies to file before exiting.  This will not save cookies
       that have expired or that have no expiry time (so-called ‘‘session
       cookies’’), but also see --keep-session-cookies.

   --keep-session-cookies
       When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save session cookies.
       Session cookies are normally not saved because they are meant to be
       kept in memory and forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving
       them is useful on sites that require you to log in or to visit the
       home page before you can access some pages.  With this option, mul?
       tiple Wget runs are considered a single browser session as far as
       the site is concerned.

       Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session cook?
       ies, Wget marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.  Wget’s
       --load-cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might
       confuse other browsers.  Also note that cookies so loaded will be
       treated as other session cookies, which means that if you want
       --save-cookies to preserve them again, you must use --keep-ses?
       sion-cookies again.

   --ignore-length
       Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more precise)
       send out bogus "Content-Length" headers, which makes Wget go wild,
       as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.  You can spot this
       syndrome if Wget retries getting the same document again and again,
       each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connection has
       closed on the very same byte.

       With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length" header---as
       if it never existed.

   --header=header-line
       Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in each HTTP
       request.  The supplied header is sent as-is, which means it must
       contain name and value separated by colon, and must not contain
       newlines.

       You may define more than one additional header by specifying
       --header more than once.

               wget --header=’Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2’ \
                    --header=’Accept-Language: hr’        \
                      http://fly.srk.fer.hr/

       Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear all
       previous user-defined headers.

       As of Wget 1.10, this option can be used to override headers other?
       wise generated automatically.  This example instructs Wget to con?
       nect to localhost, but to specify foo.bar in the "Host" header:

               wget --header="Host: foo.bar" http://localhost/

       In versions of Wget prior to 1.10 such use of --header caused send?
       ing of duplicate headers.

   --proxy-user=user
   --proxy-password=password
       Specify the username user and password password for authentication
       on a proxy server.  Wget will encode them using the "basic" authen?
       tication scheme.

       Security considerations similar to those with --http-password per?
       tain here as well.

   --referer=url
       Include ‘Referer: url’ header in HTTP request.  Useful for retriev?
       ing documents with server-side processing that assume they are
       always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only come
       out properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that point to
       them.

   --save-headers
       Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding the
       actual contents, with an empty line as the separator.

   -U agent-string
   --user-agent=agent-string
       Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

       The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using a
       "User-Agent" header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW
       software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of proto?
       col violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version, version
       being the current version number of Wget.

       However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of tailor?
       ing the output according to the "User-Agent"-supplied information.
       While this is not such a bad idea in theory, it has been abused by
       servers denying information to clients other than (historically)
       Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet Explorer.  This
       option allows you to change the "User-Agent" line issued by Wget.
       Use of this option is discouraged, unless you really know what you
       are doing.

       Specifying empty user agent with --user-agent="" instructs Wget not
       to send the "User-Agent" header in HTTP requests.

   --post-data=string
   --post-file=file
       Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the specified
       data in the request body.  "--post-data" sends string as data,
       whereas "--post-file" sends the contents of file.  Other than that,
       they work in exactly the same way.

       Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the POST data
       in advance.  Therefore the argument to "--post-file" must be a reg?
       ular file; specifying a FIFO or something like /dev/stdin won’t
       work.  It’s not quite clear how to work around this limitation
       inherent in HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces chunked trans?
       fer that doesn’t require knowing the request length in advance, a
       client can’t use chunked unless it knows it’s talking to an
       HTTP/1.1 server.  And it can’t know that until it receives a
       response, which in turn requires the request to have been completed
       -- a chicken-and-egg problem.

       Note: if Wget is redirected after the POST request is completed, it
       will not send the POST data to the redirected URL.  This is because
       URLs that process POST often respond with a redirection to a regu?
       lar page, which does not desire or accept POST.  It is not com?
       pletely clear that this behavior is optimal; if it doesn’t work
       out, it might be changed in the future.

       This example shows how to log to a server using POST and then pro?
       ceed to download the desired pages, presumably only accessible to
       authorized users:

               # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
               wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                    --post-data ’user=foo&password=bar’ \
                    http://server.com/auth.php

               # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
               wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
                    -p http://server.com/interesting/article.php

       If the server is using session cookies to track user authentica?
       tion, the above will not work because --save-cookies will not save
       them (and neither will browsers) and the cookies.txt file will be
       empty.  In that case use --keep-session-cookies along with
       --save-cookies to force saving of session cookies.

   HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options

   To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget must be compiled with
   an external SSL library, currently OpenSSL.  If Wget is compiled with?
   out SSL support, none of these options are available.

   --secure-protocol=protocol
       Choose the secure protocol to be used.  Legal values are auto,
       SSLv2, SSLv3, and TLSv1.  If auto is used, the SSL library is given
       the liberty of choosing the appropriate protocol automatically,
       which is achieved by sending an SSLv2 greeting and announcing sup?
       port for SSLv3 and TLSv1.  This is the default.

       Specifying SSLv2, SSLv3, or TLSv1 forces the use of the correspond?
       ing protocol.  This is useful when talking to old and buggy SSL
       server implementations that make it hard for OpenSSL to choose the
       correct protocol version.  Fortunately, such servers are quite
       rare.

   --no-check-certificate
       Don’t check the server certificate against the available certifi?
       cate authorities.  Also don’t require the URL host name to match
       the common name presented by the certificate.

       As of Wget 1.10, the default is to verify the server’s certificate
       against the recognized certificate authorities, breaking the SSL
       handshake and aborting the download if the verification fails.
       Although this provides more secure downloads, it does break inter?
       operability with some sites that worked with previous Wget ver?
       sions, particularly those using self-signed, expired, or otherwise
       invalid certificates.  This option forces an ‘‘insecure’’ mode of
       operation that turns the certificate verification errors into warn?
       ings and allows you to proceed.

       If you encounter ‘‘certificate verification’’ errors or ones saying
       that ‘‘common name doesn’t match requested host name’’, you can use
       this option to bypass the verification and proceed with the down?
       load.  Only use this option if you are otherwise convinced of the
       site’s authenticity, or if you really don’t care about the validity
       of its certificate.  It is almost always a bad idea not to check
       the certificates when transmitting confidential or important data.

   --certificate=file
       Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is needed for
       servers that are configured to require certificates from the
       clients that connect to them.  Normally a certificate is not
       required and this switch is optional.

   --certificate-type=type
       Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal values are PEM
       (assumed by default) and DER, also known as ASN1.

   --private-key=file
       Read the private key from file.  This allows you to provide the
       private key in a file separate from the certificate.

   --private-key-type=type
       Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values are PEM (the
       default) and DER.

   --ca-certificate=file
       Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate authorities
       (‘‘CA’’) to verify the peers.  The certificates must be in PEM for?
       mat.

       Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-
       specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

   --ca-directory=directory
       Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format.  Each
       file contains one CA certificate, and the file name is based on a
       hash value derived from the certificate.  This is achieved by pro?
       cessing a certificate directory with the "c_rehash" utility sup?
       plied with OpenSSL.  Using --ca-directory is more efficient than
       --ca-certificate when many certificates are installed because it
       allows Wget to fetch certificates on demand.

       Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-
       specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

   --random-file=file
       Use file as the source of random data for seeding the pseudo-random
       number generator on systems without /dev/random.

       On such systems the SSL library needs an external source of random?
       ness to initialize.  Randomness may be provided by EGD (see
       --egd-file below) or read from an external source specified by the
       user.  If this option is not specified, Wget looks for random data
       in $RANDFILE or, if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.  If none of those
       are available, it is likely that SSL encryption will not be usable.

       If you’re getting the ‘‘Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG; disabling
       SSL.’’  error, you should provide random data using some of the
       methods described above.

   --egd-file=file
       Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands for Entropy Gathering Dae?
       mon, a user-space program that collects data from various
       unpredictable system sources and makes it available to other pro?
       grams that might need it.  Encryption software, such as the SSL
       library, needs sources of non-repeating randomness to seed the ran?
       dom number generator used to produce cryptographically strong keys.

       OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of entropy using
       the "RAND_FILE" environment variable.  If this variable is unset,
       or if the specified file does not produce enough randomness,
       OpenSSL will read random data from EGD socket specified using this
       option.

       If this option is not specified (and the equivalent startup command
       is not used), EGD is never contacted.  EGD is not needed on modern
       Unix systems that support /dev/random.

   FTP Options


   --ftp-user=user
   --ftp-password=password
       Specify the username user and password password on an FTP server.
       Without this, or the corresponding startup option, the password
       defaults to -wget@, normally used for anonymous FTP.

       Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.
       Either method reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run
       "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in
       .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
       users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not
       leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
       them after Wget has started the download.

   --no-remove-listing
       Don’t remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP
       retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw directory list?
       ings received from FTP servers.  Not removing them can be useful
       for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able to easily check
       on the contents of remote server directories (e.g. to verify that a
       mirror you’re running is complete).

       Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename for this
       file, this is not a security hole in the scenario of a user making
       .listing a symbolic link to /etc/passwd or something and asking
       "root" to run Wget in his or her directory.  Depending on the
       options used, either Wget will refuse to write to .listing, making
       the globbing/recursion/time-stamping operation fail, or the sym?
       bolic link will be deleted and replaced with the actual .listing
       file, or the listing will be written to a .listing.number file.

       Even though this situation isn’t a problem, though, "root" should
       never run Wget in a non-trusted user’s directory.  A user could do
       something as simple as linking index.html to /etc/passwd and asking
       "root" to run Wget with -N or -r so the file will be overwritten.

   --no-glob
       Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of shell-like
       special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to retrieve more
       than one file from the same directory at once, like:

               wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

       By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a glob?
       bing character.  This option may be used to turn globbing on or off
       permanently.

       You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded by
       your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a directory listing,
       which is system-specific.  This is why it currently works only with
       Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating Unix "ls" output).

   --no-passive-ftp
       Disable the use of the passive FTP transfer mode.  Passive FTP man?
       dates that the client connect to the server to establish the data
       connection rather than the other way around.

       If the machine is connected to the Internet directly, both passive
       and active FTP should work equally well.  Behind most firewall and
       NAT configurations passive FTP has a better chance of working.
       However, in some rare firewall configurations, active FTP actually
       works when passive FTP doesn’t.  If you suspect this to be the
       case, use this option, or set "passive_ftp=off" in your init file.

   --retr-symlinks
       Usually, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a symbolic
       link is encountered, the linked-to file is not downloaded.
       Instead, a matching symbolic link is created on the local filesys?
       tem.  The pointed-to file will not be downloaded unless this recur?
       sive retrieval would have encountered it separately and downloaded
       it anyway.

       When --retr-symlinks is specified, however, symbolic links are tra?
       versed and the pointed-to files are retrieved.  At this time, this
       option does not cause Wget to traverse symlinks to directories and
       recurse through them, but in the future it should be enhanced to do
       this.

       Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was
       specified on the command-line, rather than because it was recursed
       to, this option has no effect.  Symbolic links are always traversed
       in this case.

   --no-http-keep-alive
       Turn off the ‘‘keep-alive’’ feature for HTTP downloads.  Normally,
       Wget asks the server to keep the connection open so that, when you
       download more than one document from the same server, they get
       transferred over the same TCP connection.  This saves time and at
       the same time reduces the load on the server.

       This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent
       (keep-alive) connections don’t work for you, for example due to a
       server bug or due to the inability of server-side scripts to cope
       with the connections.

   Recursive Retrieval Options


   -r
   --recursive
       Turn on recursive retrieving.

   -l depth
   --level=depth
       Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.  The default maximum
       depth is 5.

   --delete-after
       This option tells Wget to delete every single file it downloads,
       after having done so.  It is useful for pre-fetching popular pages
       through a proxy, e.g.:

               wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

       The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create
       directories.

       Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It
       does not issue the DELE command to remote FTP sites, for instance.
       Also note that when --delete-after is specified, --convert-links is
       ignored, so .orig files are simply not created in the first place.

   -k
   --convert-links
       After the download is complete, convert the links in the document
       to make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects not only the
       visible hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links to
       external content, such as embedded images, links to style sheets,
       hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.

       Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

       *   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be
           changed to refer to the file they point to as a relative link.

           Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
           /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will
           be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of transfor?
           mation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of directo?
           ries.

       *   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will
           be changed to include host name and absolute path of the loca?
           tion they point to.

           Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
           /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in doc.html
           will be modified to point to http://hostname/bar/img.gif.

       Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file
       was downloaded, the link will refer to its local name; if it was
       not downloaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address
       rather than presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former
       links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move the
       downloaded hierarchy to another directory.

       Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which links
       have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work done by -k will be
       performed at the end of all the downloads.

   -K
   --backup-converted
       When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig
       suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.

   -m
   --mirror
       Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on
       recursion and time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth and
       keeps FTP directory listings.  It is currently equivalent to -r -N
       -l inf --no-remove-listing.

   -p
   --page-requisites
       This option causes Wget to download all the files that are neces?
       sary to properly display a given HTML page.  This includes such
       things as inlined images, sounds, and referenced stylesheets.

       Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite doc?
       uments that may be needed to display it properly are not down?
       loaded.  Using -r together with -l can help, but since Wget does
       not ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined documents,
       one is generally left with ‘‘leaf documents’’ that are missing
       their requisites.

       For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>" tag referenc?
       ing 1.gif and an "<A>" tag pointing to external document 2.html.
       Say that 2.html is similar but that its image is 2.gif and it links
       to 3.html.  Say this continues up to some arbitrarily high number.

       If one executes the command:

               wget -r -l 2 http://<site>/1.html

       then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.
       As you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because Wget
       is simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in
       order to determine where to stop the recursion.  However, with this
       command:

               wget -r -l 2 -p http://<site>/1.html

       all the above files and 3.html’s requisite 3.gif will be down?
       loaded.  Similarly,

               wget -r -l 1 -p http://<site>/1.html

       will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.  One
       might think that:

               wget -r -l 0 -p http://<site>/1.html

       would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not
       the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf---that is, infinite
       recursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them,
       all specified on the command-line or in a -i URL input file) and
       its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

               wget -p http://<site>/1.html

       Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only
       that single page and its requisites will be downloaded.  Links from
       that page to external documents will not be followed.  Actually, to
       download a single page and all its requisites (even if they exist
       on separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly
       locally, this author likes to use a few options in addition to -p:

               wget -E -H -k -K -p http://<site>/<document>

       To finish off this topic, it’s worth knowing that Wget’s idea of an
       external document link is any URL specified in an "<A>" tag, an
       "<AREA>" tag, or a "<LINK>" tag other than "<LINK
       REL="stylesheet">".

   --strict-comments
       Turn on strict parsing of HTML comments.  The default is to termi?
       nate comments at the first occurrence of -->.

       According to specifications, HTML comments are expressed as SGML
       declarations.  Declaration is special markup that begins with <!
       and ends with >, such as <!DOCTYPE ...>, that may contain comments
       between a pair of -- delimiters.  HTML comments are ‘‘empty decla?
       rations’’, SGML declarations without any non-comment text.  There?
       fore, <!--foo--> is a valid comment, and so is <!--one-- --two-->,
       but <!--1--2--> is not.

       On the other hand, most HTML writers don’t perceive comments as
       anything other than text delimited with <!-- and -->, which is not
       quite the same.  For example, something like <!------------> works
       as a valid comment as long as the number of dashes is a multiple of
       four (!).  If not, the comment technically lasts until the next --,
       which may be at the other end of the document.  Because of this,
       many popular browsers completely ignore the specification and
       implement what users have come to expect: comments delimited with
       <!-- and -->.

       Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly, which
       resulted in missing links in many web pages that displayed fine in
       browsers, but had the misfortune of containing non-compliant com?
       ments.  Beginning with version 1.9, Wget has joined the ranks of
       clients that implements ‘‘naive’’ comments, terminating each com?
       ment at the first occurrence of -->.

       If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment parsing, use this
       option to turn it on.

   Recursive Accept/Reject Options


   -A acclist --accept acclist
   -R rejlist --reject rejlist
       Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to
       accept or reject (@pxref{Types of Files} for more details).

   -D domain-list
   --domains=domain-list
       Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-separated list
       of domains.  Note that it does not turn on -H.

   --exclude-domains domain-list
       Specify the domains that are not to be followed..

   --follow-ftp
       Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this option, Wget
       will ignore all the FTP links.

   --follow-tags=list
       Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it
       considers when looking for linked documents during a recursive
       retrieval.  If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be con?
       sidered, however, he or she should be specify such tags in a comma-
       separated list with this option.

   --ignore-tags=list
       This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To skip certain
       HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to download, spec?
       ify them in a comma-separated list.

       In the past, this option was the best bet for downloading a single
       page and its requisites, using a command-line like:

               wget --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r http://<site>/<document>

       However, the author of this option came across a page with tags
       like "<LINK REL="home" HREF="/">" and came to the realization that
       specifying tags to ignore was not enough.  One can’t just tell Wget
       to ignore "<LINK>", because then stylesheets will not be down?
       loaded.  Now the best bet for downloading a single page and its
       requisites is the dedicated --page-requisites option.

   --ignore-case
       Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This influences
       the behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options, as well as globbing
       implemented when downloading from FTP sites.  For example, with
       this option, -A *.txt will match file1.txt, but also file2.TXT,
       file3.TxT, and so on.

   -H
   --span-hosts
       Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.

   -L
   --relative
       Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a specific home
       page without any distractions, not even those from the same hosts.

   -I list
   --include-directories=list
       Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow
       when downloading (@pxref{Directory-Based Limits} for more details.)
       Elements of list may contain wildcards.

   -X list
   --exclude-directories=list
       Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude
       from download (@pxref{Directory-Based Limits} for more details.)
       Elements of list may contain wildcards.

   -np
   --no-parent
       Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recur?
       sively.  This is a useful option, since it guarantees that only the
       files below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded.

EXAMPLES The examples are divided into three sections loosely based on their complexity.

   Simple Usage


   ·   Say you want to download a URL.  Just type:

               wget http://fly.srk.fer.hr/

   ·   But what will happen if the connection is slow, and the file is
       lengthy?  The connection will probably fail before the whole file
       is retrieved, more than once.  In this case, Wget will try getting
       the file until it either gets the whole of it, or exceeds the
       default number of retries (this being 20).  It is easy to change
       the number of tries to 45, to insure that the whole file will
       arrive safely:

               wget --tries=45 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/jpg/flyweb.jpg

   ·   Now let’s leave Wget to work in the background, and write its
       progress to log file log.  It is tiring to type --tries, so we
       shall use -t.

               wget -t 45 -o log http://fly.srk.fer.hr/jpg/flyweb.jpg &

       The ampersand at the end of the line makes sure that Wget works in
       the background.  To unlimit the number of retries, use -t inf.

   ·   The usage of FTP is as simple.  Wget will take care of login and
       password.

               wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/welcome.msg

   ·   If you specify a directory, Wget will retrieve the directory list?
       ing, parse it and convert it to HTML.  Try:

               wget ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/
               links index.html

   Advanced Usage


   ·   You have a file that contains the URLs you want to download?  Use
       the -i switch:

               wget -i <file>

       If you specify - as file name, the URLs will be read from standard
       input.

   ·   Create a five levels deep mirror image of the GNU web site, with
       the same directory structure the original has, with only one try
       per document, saving the log of the activities to gnulog:

               wget -r http://www.gnu.org/ -o gnulog

   ·   The same as the above, but convert the links in the HTML files to
       point to local files, so you can view the documents off-line:

               wget --convert-links -r http://www.gnu.org/ -o gnulog

   ·   Retrieve only one HTML page, but make sure that all the elements
       needed for the page to be displayed, such as inline images and
       external style sheets, are also downloaded.  Also make sure the
       downloaded page references the downloaded links.

               wget -p --convert-links http://www.server.com/dir/page.html

       The HTML page will be saved to www.server.com/dir/page.html, and
       the images, stylesheets, etc., somewhere under www.server.com/,
       depending on where they were on the remote server.

   ·   The same as the above, but without the www.server.com/ directory.
       In fact, I don’t want to have all those random server directories
       anyway---just save all those files under a download/ subdirectory
       of the current directory.

               wget -p --convert-links -nH -nd -Pdownload \
                    http://www.server.com/dir/page.html

   ·   Retrieve the index.html of www.lycos.com, showing the original
       server headers:

               wget -S http://www.lycos.com/

   ·   Save the server headers with the file, perhaps for post-processing.

               wget --save-headers http://www.lycos.com/
               more index.html

   ·   Retrieve the first two levels of wuarchive.wustl.edu, saving them
       to /tmp.

               wget -r -l2 -P/tmp ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/

   ·   You want to download all the GIFs from a directory on an HTTP
       server.  You tried wget http://www.server.com/dir/*.gif, but that
       didn’t work because HTTP retrieval does not support globbing.  In
       that case, use:

               wget -r -l1 --no-parent -A.gif http://www.server.com/dir/

       More verbose, but the effect is the same.  -r -l1 means to retrieve
       recursively, with maximum depth of 1.  --no-parent means that ref?
       erences to the parent directory are ignored, and -A.gif means to
       download only the GIF files.  -A "*.gif" would have worked too.

   ·   Suppose you were in the middle of downloading, when Wget was inter?
       rupted.  Now you do not want to clobber the files already present.
       It would be:

               wget -nc -r http://www.gnu.org/

   ·   If you want to encode your own username and password to HTTP or
       FTP, use the appropriate URL syntax.

               wget ftp://hniksic:mypassword@unix.server.com/.emacs

       Note, however, that this usage is not advisable on multi-user sys?
       tems because it reveals your password to anyone who looks at the
       output of "ps".

   ·   You would like the output documents to go to standard output
       instead of to files?

               wget -O - http://jagor.srce.hr/ http://www.srce.hr/

       You can also combine the two options and make pipelines to retrieve
       the documents from remote hotlists:

               wget -O - http://cool.list.com/ | wget --force-html -i -

   Very Advanced Usage


   ·   If you wish Wget to keep a mirror of a page (or FTP subdirecto?
       ries), use --mirror (-m), which is the shorthand for -r -l inf -N.
       You can put Wget in the crontab file asking it to recheck a site
       each Sunday:

               crontab
               0 0 * * 0 wget --mirror http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

   ·   In addition to the above, you want the links to be converted for
       local viewing.  But, after having read this manual, you know that
       link conversion doesn’t play well with timestamping, so you also
       want Wget to back up the original HTML files before the conversion.
       Wget invocation would look like this:

               wget --mirror --convert-links --backup-converted  \
                    http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

   ·   But you’ve also noticed that local viewing doesn’t work all that
       well when HTML files are saved under extensions other than .html,
       perhaps because they were served as index.cgi.  So you’d like Wget
       to rename all the files served with content-type text/html or
       application/xhtml+xml to name.html.

               wget --mirror --convert-links --backup-converted \
                    --html-extension -o /home/me/weeklog        \
                    http://www.gnu.org/

       Or, with less typing:

               wget -m -k -K -E http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

FILES /etc/wgetrc Default location of the global startup file.

   .wgetrc
       User startup file.

BUGS You are welcome to send bug reports about GNU Wget to bug-wget@gnu.org.

   Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few
   simple guidelines.

   1.  Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a bug.
       If Wget crashes, it’s a bug.  If Wget does not behave as docu?
       mented, it’s a bug.  If things work strange, but you are not sure
       about the way they are supposed to work, it might well be a bug.

   2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.  E.g.
       if Wget crashes while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5 -Y0
       http://yoyodyne.com -o /tmp/log, you should try to see if the crash
       is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set of options.
       You might even try to start the download at the page where the
       crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the crash.

       Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of
       your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the debug message is proba?
       bly a bad idea.  Instead, you should first try to see if the bug
       repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the way.  Only if it turns out
       that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of
       the file.

   3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send us the resulting output
       (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget was compiled without debug
       support, recompile it---it is much easier to trace bugs with debug
       support on.

       Note: please make sure to remove any potentially sensitive informa?
       tion from the debug log before sending it to the bug address.  The
       "-d" won’t go out of its way to collect sensitive information, but
       the log will contain a fairly complete transcript of Wget’s commu?
       nication with the server, which may include passwords and pieces of
       downloaded data.  Since the bug address is publically archived, you
       may assume that all bug reports are visible to the public.

   4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb ‘which
       wget‘ core" and type "where" to get the backtrace.  This may not
       work if the system administrator has disabled core files, but it is
       safe to try.

SEE ALSO GNU Info entry for wget.

AUTHOR Originally written by Hrvoje Niksic hniksic@xemacs.org.

COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 1996–2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
   manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
   preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
   under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
   any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
   Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
   Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ‘‘GNU
   Free Documentation License’’.

GNU Wget 1.10.2 2007-06-18 WGET(1)